Mosquito larvae monitoring
Monitoring and forecasting of mosquito larvae is a key component of any effective integrated mosquito control program. When mosquitoes are eliminated before they reach the adult stage (adult mosquito), then they will not be a problem (interfere with normal human activities and transmit diseases).
The position of the city of Belgrade on two large rivers, the Sava and the Danube, with about 180 km of coastline, as well as a large number of smaller watercourses with unregulated coastline, canals, forlands and cubes represent favorable conditions for the formation of mosquito habitats. In addition to the mentioned watercourses on the territory of Belgrade, there is also a large number of reclamation and transmission channels, most of which are unregulated and turned into fecal recipients. Standing water surfaces of different origins, a large number of septic tanks that are present in parts of the city without sewage, as well as other micro-hotspots, are also a big problem. All of the above are ideal places for the formation of permanent or temporary mosquito habitats, which makes Belgrade a territory where it is necessary to implement mosquito control measures throughout the year. Monitoring of mosquito larvae is performed in all municipalities in the city of Belgrade.
Monitoring is performed with a standard pump consisting of a plastic container with a volume of 350 ml, attached to a telescopic handle. A sample is taken from the examined water surface with the help of a pump, and then the temperature is measured and the number of larvae is estimated in accordance with the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. In addition to the number, the stage of development in which the larvae are located is determined, as well as the presence of pupae.
In the case of river surfaces, lakes or larger ponds, the water sample is taken from the coastal part, where due to the smaller depth and higher water temperature, the conditions are more suitable for the development of mosquito larvae. In the case of canals, the sample is taken along the edges of the canal, where there is vegetation.
Monitoring of adult forms of mosquitoes
The number of adult forms of mosquitoes is estimated on the basis of monitoring conducted during the entire season of mosquito activity, usually from April to October. Mosquitoes are caught by special traps designed for this purpose, BG Sentinel® types 1 and 2. Solid carbon dioxide serves as an attractant. The traps are set on locations in the evening, and they are collected the next morning. In this way, both periods of mosquito activity, evening and morning, are covered. Collected mosquitoes are brought to the laboratory, separated by genera and species and counted.
In the territory of Belgrade, monitoring of adult forms of mosquitoes is performed at about 200 different locations that represent natural habitats of mosquitoes such as green areas (forests, park – forests, parks, block greenery, etc.) in urban, suburban and rural areas of the city; the banks of the Sava and the Danube and other watercourses and their mouths, as well as the banks of the meliration, transmission and other channels on the left bank of the Sava and the left bank of the Danube; enclosed spaces in residential and other buildings which, due to malfunction of installations, constant presence of moisture, small amount of water and constant temperature, represent a continuous habitat for mosquitoes.