Within the Orientation Program for Mosquito Control on the Territory of Belgrade in 2007 and 2008, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology controlled larval and house forms of mosquitoes on the territory of 10 city municipalities as well as on the part of Obrenovac municipality, on a total area of about 20,000 ha and 3,500 residential entrances in accordance with the order and instructions of the expert team formed by the Secretariat for Environmental Protection. The orientation program for mosquito control on the territory of Belgrade also included the control of fleas in the amount of 1,200 residential buildings, considering that these insects appear in the same or similar conditions and in the same habitats as the house forms of mosquitoes.
From 2007 to 2010, at the request of the Secretariat for Environmental Protection and in cooperation with contractors, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology prepared work plans of teams, organized the issuance of the necessary quantities of preparations to all contractors, professional forecasting, supervision and control services (Institute for Pesticides and Environmental Protection, Belgrade-Zemun and the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade) submitted work plans with a detailed schedule for each contractor for the control of adult forms of mosquitoes from the ground and for the control of adult and larval forms of mosquitoes from aircraft.
In 2011, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology started monitoring the larval forms of mosquitoes. Monitoring included monitoring the number and determining the stage of larval development (eggs, larval stages, pupae), monitoring the condition of the water surface and its temperature, as well as meteorological conditions in the field. The procedure is in accordance with the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. It also conducts monitoring and forecasting and control of adult forms of mosquitoes on an approximately determined area of 80,000 ha with devices from the ground. Monitoring of adult forms of mosquitoes was performed in 17 city municipalities using the MAN / HOUR method (stay of experts at a certain location for 15 minutes and counting landing mosquitoes in that time interval).
In 2012 and 2013, the Department of Biocides and Medical Ecology began monitoring adult forms of mosquitoes with modern traps (BG-SENTINEL trap type 1, with carbon dioxide as an attractant), when the program of measures to prevent / reduce the risk of Western fever began. Nile. In 2012, the Institute conducted monitoring of larvae and adult forms of mosquitoes in the facilities of sewage pumping stations on the territory of the City of Belgrade.
Today, the Institute is the only health institution in the Republic of Serbia, specialized in controlling the number and suppression of vectors of infectious diseases, disinfection and sterilization, as well as monitoring the efficiency and ecotoxicological parameters of biocides in order to preserve and improve the environment.
Since the Institute is in the network of health institutions in 2013, it was accredited by the Agency for Accreditation of Health Institutions for a period of 7 years.
In order to manage processes and improve the quality of work, the Institute has implemented the following management systems:
• SRPS ISO 9001: 2015 Quality management system
• SRPS ISO 14001: 2015 Environmental management system
• SRPS OHSAS 18001: 2008 Occupational health and safety management system
• ISO 27001: 2013 Information security management systems
• CEN EN 16636: 2015 Management of pest control services
COOPERATION WITH THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH
An cooperation with the Ministry of Health, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology conducts activities of various programs with the aim of preventing the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases.
One of them is the program “Entomological surveillance of mosquitoes and detection of vectors of vector infectious diseases – West Nile fever, dengue, chikungunya, Zika fever and malaria” whose activities were conducted during 2017 and the current 2018. years. The program began in 2013 when it was called “Detection of West Nile virus in mosquito populations in the Republic of Serbia” using the PCR real time method (procurement of PCR devices), which was a novelty in our country and the Institute can proudly say that was a pioneer in the field. Mosquito hunting and analysis were performed in 26 cities in Serbia, with West Nile virus-positive individuals detected in 14 cities, including Belgrade. According to epidemiological indications, another 20 settlements were visited in the same year, and the analyzed virus was confirmed at 5 locations. For the next two years, 2014 and 2015, the program was called “Detection of West Nile virus in mosquito populations in the Republic of Serbia”, analyzing mosquito populations in the same cities as in 2013 and observed a decrease in the number of cities positive for West Nile virus. , as well as the number of positive mosquitoes. The following year, 2016, the cooperation between the Institute and the Ministry of Health continued through the program “Entomological surveillance of mosquitoes of the West Nile fever vector”.
The Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology can boast of eminent experts who regularly monitor the situation on the ground, as well as all changes and trends in the world, constantly improving themselves through professional trainings, workshops and congresses.
Another program implemented by the Institute in cooperation with the Ministry of Health since 2014 is “Detection of Lyme disease, viral tick-borne encephalitis and human granulocyte anaplasmosis in the tick population and territorial distribution in the Republic of Serbia.” Within this program, the experts of the Institute perform monitoring, hunting of live individuals and their microbiological analysis. This analysis detects the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria (Lyme disease agent), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocyte anaplasmosis agent), as well as the detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus, by PCR real time method. The activities of this program are carried out in a large number of cities in the Republic of Serbia. The experts of the Institute continuously monitor and report to the citizens on the situation on the ground and the current results.
COOPERATION WITH THE SECRETARIAT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
During 2012, in cooperation with the Secretariat for Environmental Protection, the project “Research of the role and importance of rodents in the city of Belgrade in order to regulate the number of ecological principles and protect the health of the population from zoonoses (ECOZOON)” was carried out. The results of the project showed a high infestation of gray rat populations with Leptospira sp. and Borrelia burgdorferi. These results also indicated the great importance of systematic deratization in the control of rodent-borne zoonoses in the urban environment and in the protection of the health of the population from infectious diseases.
During the unprecedented floods in recent history that hit Belgrade in May 2014, the Institute, with its efforts and work on disinfection of flooded areas, earned the trust of the Secretariat for Environmental Protection and gained the exclusive right to perform the following activities in Belgrade:
• Performing disinfection (liquid, final and according to epidemiological indications), disinsection (wet application, manual or motor sprayers, cold and hot fogging or gel application) and deratization (mainly chemical, and if necessary mechanical) in health care facilities, basic facilities schools, preschool institutions, social protection facilities, facilities of public utility companies founded by the City of Belgrade, as well as facilities of the City of Belgrade.
• Performing systematic deratization, which includes monitoring of harmful rodents in the field throughout the year, organization and implementation of pest control in all 17 Belgrade municipalities, which consists of two rounds (spring and autumn). Systematic deratization includes housing units (basements, sheds), individual households, unhygienic settlements, coastal areas and undeveloped green areas on the territory of the City of Belgrade. Preparations that have a decision on use with the Ministry of Environmental Protection are used.
• Carrying out tick control activities on the territory of the City of Belgrade. The activities consist of monitoring the number of ticks on all important public green areas, picnic areas, parks and park forests from spring to autumn in accordance with climatic conditions and the expected appearance of ticks and their control by chemical treatment. Tick monitoring is performed on the green areas of 16 city municipalities of the City of Belgrade. The tick monitoring procedure consists of waving a white flannel flag over green areas, based on the results of which chemical treatment is organized and carried out. The Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology also provides citizens with the opportunity to bring ticks removed from the human body for testing for the presence of the causative agent of Lyme disease. Citizens are informed about all actions in a timely manner through the media. The means of control are registered by the Ministries of Environmental Protection and are safe for both humans and animals.
• Carrying out mosquito larvae control work. Larvicidal treatment covers areas along the banks of the Sava and Danube, as well as reclamation and transmission canals, permanent and temporary ponds, natural wastewater capacities (sewage pumping stations, fecal canals), manholes, excavations, lakes. In addition to the control of larvae in open areas, since 2016, for the first time, the Institute has been carrying out the control of larval forms of mosquitoes on microfoci in individual households. This treatment includes septic tanks, ponds, barrels, buckets, etc. in individual households, as well as in basements of residential and other buildings. The development of a plan for the control of larval forms of mosquitoes implies monitoring the number of larvae, the structure of larval stages and pupae, the characteristics of water surfaces, ie. their nature (depth, pollution, sunshine, vegetation density, etc.), as well as climatic and meteorological conditions. Based on these characteristics, locations for larvicidal treatment are determined. As part of the treatment of microfoci, the preparation is applied by manual scattering of granules on the present water surfaces. Larva control is performed with a preparation that is registered with the competent ministry and is on the list of registered biocidal products. The preparation belongs to the group of growth regulators, which means that it prevents the larva or pupa from passing to the next stage of development.
• Carrying out work to control house forms of mosquitoes. The misconception is that during the winter months, mosquitoes are absent from our immediate environment. During the winter months, mosquitoes retreat to enclosed spaces to hibernate. Mosquito overwintering can be done at the stage of fertilized females, larvae or eggs. The Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology, through their suppression, in another way protects the health of its citizens. If the environmental conditions are adequate, the air temperature is favorable and there is standing water in the room, mosquitoes will be active throughout the winter. They are most often found in the corridors of residential buildings, basements, technical floors, garages, etc. The Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology organizes mosquito control indoors in 7,200 facilities per year.
• Performing work to control adult forms of mosquitoes in the open. Mosquito control, which has been continuously implemented in Belgrade since 1974, is part of an integrated approach to the prevention of endemic infectious diseases such as malaria, polio, encephalitis, yellow fever and other viral diseases transmitted by certain mosquito species. With its geographical position, climatic, ecological and socio-economic characteristics, Belgrade is a vulnerable area for the occurrence of some of these diseases. The goal of the mosquito control program is biological control and reduction of the mosquito population, as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of endemic infectious and other diseases. Suppression is performed with modern devices from the ground, manual smoke generator for thermal fogging “IGEBA EVO 35”, tank volume 5 l, smoke generator for thermal fogging “IGEBA TF 65/20 E”, tank volume 20 l and smoke generator for thermal fogging “IGEBA TF 95 “, tank volume 60 l.
• Performing activities of monitoring harmful organisms on the territory of the City of Belgrade
• Performing disinfection work according to program indications and in emergency situations on the territory of the City of Belgrade. During the Ebola pandemic in 2014, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology participated in the development of a number of instructions and procedures for protection against the occurrence of this disease in the Republic of Serbia: “Procedure on the use of protective equipment and basics of disinfection according to epidemiological indications – Ebola virus) “,” Instructions for disinfection of contaminated areas from the infectious agent Ebola virus with the application of personal protection measures “, instructions for prevention of Ebola epidemic, instructions on the proper use of personal protection measures against Ebola virus and instructions for employees at international airports suspicions of Ebola, etc. Employees of the Institute trained health workers on the prevention of the Ebola epidemic, the proper use of personal protection measures and the basics of disinfection according to epidemiological indications. The institute also disinfected vehicles that transported asylum seekers who were suspected of being exposed to the Ebola virus.
During the floods on the territory of Belgrade in May 2014, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology participated in eliminating the consequences of the flood on the territory of 6 city municipalities, of which the largest areas were treated in Obrenovac and Lazarevac. In Obrenovac, 6000 apartments, 1800 houses and 17000 rural households on the territory of the municipality were disinfected. Disinfection was also carried out at the newly formed Centers for the reception of evacuees from flooded territories throughout the city and the premises where the Crisis Staff met, as well as the installation of deso-barriers and the distribution of disinfectants to citizens and institutions engaged in clearing the terrain. The total disinfected area was 10,000,000 m2. The quick reaction and responsible work of the expert teams of the Institute in the field prevented the population from the flooded areas from contracting infectious diseases on an epidemic scale. The fact that there were no infected people among the teams of the Institute that performed disinfection speaks in favor of proper protection and safety at work in the endangered area with a high epidemiological risk. Based on the results and expertise shown in the remediation of the consequences of the flood, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology has become part of the National Strategy for Protection and Rescue, which aims to protect life, health and property, environment and cultural heritage of the Republic of Serbia. The Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology was also placed on the list of qualified legal entities by the Decision on Determining Qualified Legal Entities for Protection and Rescue on the Territory of the City of Belgrade (“Official Gazette of the City of Belgrade”, No. 93/2014 of December 19, 2014).
As part of the health service’s response to the migrant crisis, as part of public health programs in transit reception centers, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology has been involved in establishing and taking anti-epidemic measures in migrants’ accommodation facilities since the diagnosis of body infestation among migrants. territory of Belgrade. In cooperation with the Institute of Public Health of Serbia “Dr Milan Jovanović Batut”, the Institute participated in the development of a document entitled “Professional and methodological instructions for the procedure of monitoring and control of infestation by body lice in the migrant population in the Republic of Serbia”, which was used as a basic document by the competent public health institutes in the organization and implementation of measures to combat the infestation of body lice in all transit reception centers in the country. As a reference institution with experience in similar situations, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology was invited in 2016 by the regional Institutes of Public Health to provide professional assistance in solving the problem of infestation among migrants in transit reception centers in Serbia. In addition to professional assistance in the form of advice and training, the Institute provided material assistance to regional public health institutes in biocidal products, personal protective equipment and other means of work.
As the competent institution for performing DDD work and suppression of vectors of infectious diseases in the city of Belgrade, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology has continuously implemented preventive measures of disinfection, disinsection and deratization of space, as well as measures of depediculation of clothes, bedding and cases, in the transit-reception centers in Krnjača and Obrenovac, which are located on the territory of the city.
During the floods on the territory of the city of Belgrade in July 2018, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology participated in eliminating the consequences of the floods on the territory of 7 city municipalities. About 700 households were disinfected. The total disinfected area was about 600,000 m2. The effectiveness of the implemented measures was once again confirmed by the absence of infectious diseases among the population and employees of the Institute.
SARADNJA SA SEKRATARIJATOM ZA ZDRAVSTVO
Ambrosia is one of the dangerous allergens that cause problems in about 10% of the human population. In humans, ragweed pollen is the cause of 75% of all pollen allergies, and there is no age limit for the appearance of sensitivity. The Institute has been successfully monitoring and controlling this allergenic weed plant since 2017 within the Program “Ambrosia as a health risk, monitoring and control of ragweed from unregulated public areas in the City of Belgrade”, on public unregulated green areas in the City of Belgrade. Professional and trained teams monitor and control ragweed with modern machines and preparations approved by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
Today, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology primarily consists of a multidisciplinary team, composed of experts in the fields of medicine, veterinary medicine, biology, ecology, chemistry, plant protection and geography. All of them, by synchronous action and joint effort, contribute to the prevention and protection of the health of the population. With their constant improvement and training, they follow all world trends in the field of health care and apply the latest methods in their work.
The Institute also has a laboratory that was formed in 2007 and consists of an analytical one – intended for testing the chemical correctness of biocides and a laboratory for testing the biological efficiency of the mentioned products. These preparations are used as registered biocidal products for the treatment of larvae and adult forms of mosquitoes, ticks and harmful rodents, for use in communal hygiene. The mentioned tests are performed by experts in the field of veterinary medicine, chemistry, biology and plant protection. It is also actively working on the development and testing of new biocidal products. The development of new products is the result of the development of a business strategy that aims to improve the quality of work by increasing efficiency in the field and preserving the environment.
Analytical tests of the quality of biocidal products are performed using instrumental techniques, with the application of adequate methods (CIPAC, AOAC, WHO).
The laboratory has modern equipment that is a confirmation of the improvement of the quality of work in terms of providing services to its customers. The analytical laboratory contains gas and liquid chromatography devices from renowned manufacturers, without which no modern laboratory could be imagined today. There is also a UV spectrophotometer, analytical balance, magnetic stirrers, rotary vacuum evaporator, ultrasonic bath, pH meters and other accompanying equipment as well as consumables, everything that a laboratory needs for precise and quality analyzes. From this year, our laboratory can boast of another very valuable device, and that is the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, which provides the possibility of numerous analyzes and opens the doors of the Institute for some new jobs in future work.
The laboratory employs professional and trained staff who fully perform all activities provided for in the plan and program. Great attention is paid to the education of employees in the service, with the aim of introducing new methods in work both in the field and in the laboratory.
Respecting the guidelines of good laboratory practice and professional methodological instructions, the Service for Biocides and Medical Ecology implements its activities according to defined procedures and instructions for work, both in the field and in the laboratory itself.
Respecting the Mission and Vision as well as the Strategic Plan of the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology, the staff in the Service for Biocides and Medical Ecology follows the guidelines of good laboratory practice and uses all their acquired knowledge working on continuous professional development in order to introduce new technologies. obtaining the most reliable and accurate results, in order to meet the needs of users of our services.
In addition to the laboratory, there are two chambers for sterilization with ethylene oxide, as well as a modern vehicle fleet necessary for efficient and successful work of teams in the field.
IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES
In order to more efficiently implement operational activities in 2007. The use of GPS systems was introduced in, with the coordinates being delivered to the members of the biological forecasting, monitoring and control team. From 2011 until today, GPS devices have been used to map locations where monitoring is carried out. In order to obtain more complete data that can be manipulated, the Institute for Biocides and Medical Ecology in 2013 introduced GIS (Geographic Information System) and a special application for entering data from the field during monitoring. Field data such as climatic meteorological conditions, water surface temperature, number of sampled larvae and species, location coordinates, etc. a single database is entered, and later this data is exported in the form of a table and a map. With the help of GIS, the distribution of mosquitoes and their habitats is monitored, with digital maps showing potential habitats, based on vegetation, proximity to water surfaces, the degree of urban area and climatic factors. In order to achieve more efficient monitoring, the Department of Biocides and Medical Ecology purchased the DJI Inspire 1 pro drone in 2017 in order to make it easier to find inaccessible water surfaces and record the situation in the field.